However Zebesian Space Pirates appeared and commenced raids on the spaceships. To combat this new threat, the Federation Bureau founded the "Galactic Federation Police" - an elite force which made valiant efforts against the Space Pirates. However, the Space Pirates proved too difficult to catch in the vastness of space. In response to these difficulties, the Federation Police called on the galaxy's best warriors to track down and battle the Zebesians with the offer of great rewards for captured Pirates. These warriors were called "Space Hunters", and they served as intergalactic bounty hunters - the most famous and powerful of which is Samus Aran.
Since it was developed as story background, most of the actual Federation remains a mystery. Its structure, processes, rules, policies, legislation and so on are largely unknown and, since politics play little to no role in Metroid games, are likely to remain so. We do know that a large number of planets and sectors remain unexplored, and the Federation is concerned with these. To that end, it frequently sends scientific exploration teams to these sectors. The racial breakdown of the Federation is similarly unknown, but the only picture displayed (in the original Metroid manual) suggests that humans are not a major player in the government, though as seen in Metroid Prime 2: Echoes and Metroid Prime 3: Corruption the humans do seem to be a very large part of the military. The specifics of culture, religion, trade, currency, technology, civil rights/liberties, and so on are also unknown. Sectors are ruled by governors. The 2002 manga revealed that the capital planet of the Fedaration is Daiban, though previously it had been speculated by some fans to be Earth.
With the release of Metroid Prime 3, some of the mystery of the Galactic Federation is being pulled back. It is known that they use Aurora Units as a vast network of information for military, business and other governmental purposes. A reference to a "old man" who is preparing the Federation fleet for invasion of the Pirate Homeworld is also mentioned by several Fleet Troopers on the GFS Olympus. This person may or may not be the Chairman of the Federation, or at least the head of the military. It is implied by context to be Admiral Dane. The story of the Federation's creation is depicted in a story with Chairman Keaton in the 2002 manga.
Fleet Admiral Castor Dane (voiced by Timothy Patrick Miller) is the commander of the G.F.S. Olympus. His only appearance is in Metroid Prime 3: Corruption. He is known for his utmost dedication to protecting the Galactic Federation from its enemies. He is stern, aggressive, and has a strong dislike for the Space Pirates.
Concept art.Samus Aran meets with the Admiral along with Ghor, Rundas, and Gandrayda aboard the G.F.S. Olympus. He tells them that Aurora Unit 313 has been stolen by Space Pirates, and that a virus has been planted into the Aurora Unit network. He wants them to deliver a vaccine to purge the virus, though is cut short of his speech when Space Pirates attack the Olympus fleet.
Dane took part in the Federation's invasion of the Pirate Homeworld while giving Samus directions on disabling a Planetary Shielding. This mostly involved giving orders behind the scenes, however he escorted a group of Demolition Troopers on to the planet's surface. Later, they use a hovering Leviathan and used it to open a wormhole to planet Phaaze, and also led the attack on it from the flagship Olympus.
In the end, one of his soldiers told him that Phaaze was beginning an imploding event. He then ordered his entire fleet to warp back. After Phaaze's destruction, Samus has yet to be reported as a survivor, and he noticeably mourns Samus with a teardrop. When she her gunship comes into view, Dane salutes her while she writes a message "Mission Complete" on the screen.